The Firefighter Cancer Registry Act was co-sponsored by Senators Susan Collins and Angus King and on Monday, it was signed into law.
Firefighters have long suspected materials used to make furniture and other household goods give off cancer-causing elements when they burn.
The new registry will form a national database that will keep track of when firefighters are diagnosed with cancer. It will help researchers study the link between dangerous fumes and whether they are causing firefighters to get sick.
Senators Collins and King released a statement saying cancer is the leading cause of death for firefighters and the registry will show how best to provide them with the resources and equipment to protect their health.